Phytophthora ramorum is a fungus-like pathogen that spreads by generating spores. It was first found in Scotland in 2002 and there is no known cure.
Almost half a million trees are to be felled on Arran, bringing “substantial changes to some well-loved landscapes”.
The work is due to start next month and will take several years to complete.
Public body Forestry and Land Scotland (FLS) said it was working on plans for replanting in the cleared areas to reduce the visual impact as much as possible.
A total of about 543 acres (220ha) of larch will be felled in an effort to control the disease.
The removal of the trees is being carried out under a licence and once felled the timber can still be processed for uses such as wood chips.
Andy Walker, of FLS, said: “This is a horrible disease that can’t be eradicated and has no known cure. The only way we have to slow its rate of spread is to fell the affected larch trees.
“It will result in substantial changes to some well-loved landscapes over the next few years but if we don’t do this, then the long-term impact will be even worse.”
He said residents and visitors to Arran could help prevent the spread of spores by cleaning mud from boots, bike wheels and dogs’ paws before and after visits to woodland. FLS has more advice on its website.
Regulatory agency Scottish Forestry has been working with FLS on how to tackle the disease.
The organisation’s Sasha Laing said: “The location and scale of infections on Arran have required us to develop our local regulatory approach to look to achieve the best disease control outcomes over the coming years.
“The approach taken allows due consideration of the unique landscape of Arran and the capacity of the forestry sector to deliver these outcomes.”